Chapter 3 Notes

The Jeffersonian Era

Jefferson defeats Adams in the 1800 election (12th Amendment ratified)

          Jefferson favors smaller government


Important court cases: Chief Justice John Marshall works to build strong central government

   Marbury v. Madison – establishes judicial review.

   McCulloch v. Maryland – states can’t tax the federal gov. The case strengthens the central gov.

   Fletcher v. Peck – establishes the sanctity of a contract.

   Cohens v. Virginia– appeals cases would be heard by a higher judiciary.

   Gibbons v. Ogden– establishes that congress shall regulate interstate congress.


Louisiana Purchase:

Bought from France. Negotiators were Robert Livingston and James Monroe

$15 million. Includes all western lands drained by Mississippi River.


Exploration of Louisiana authorizedMeriwether Lewis and William Clark lead the Corps of Discovery. First winter spent with Mandan tribe. Sacajawea guides the Corps west. Second winter spent at Fort Clatsop. Return to St. Louis 2 ½ years later.


James Madison wins 1808 election. Inherits foreign problems of the previous administration.

Impressment is growing problem.

Reasons for the War of 1812:


a.     Impressment

b.     Violations of U.S. neutrality

c.      Inciting the Indians to attack western settlers


Most major battles in the war are sea battles. British attack U.S. cities. Burn Washington D.C. Attack on Baltimore fails. Baltimore defended by Ft. McHenry. Assault on Ft. McHenry inspires Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner.


Treaty of Ghent ends the war. No major territory gained or lost. Battle of New Orleans is major victory for U.S. Happens after the treaty is signed. General Andrew Jackson is new national hero.


Time of peace and prosperity follows the war. James Monroe elected president in 1816 and 1820. Time known as the “Era of Good Feelings”


U.S. interested in acquiring Florida. General Andrew Jackson and his army invade Spanish territory in pursuit of hostile Indians. Sec. of State John Q. Adams later negotiates a deal to purchase Florida from Spain.


Monroe Doctrine issued. Warns European countries not to colonize any further in the Western Hemisphere.


Missouri Compromise: Two states added to keep balance between "slave” states and “free” states in Congress. Maine is added as a free state and Missouri added as a slave state.


John Quincy Adams wins controversial election of 1824.

Electoral votes:    Andrew Jackson – 99

                             John Q. Adams – 84

                             William Crawford – 41

                             Henry Clay – 37

The vote goes to Congress where Henry Clay (as Speaker of the House) throws his full support to John Quincy Adams. Adams wins congressional vote. Adams announces Henry Clay is new Secretary of State. Corrupt bargain?


America develops nationalism: A true sense of pride and devotion to your country.

American symbols are established: Bald eagle, new flag, national holidays, stronger military. New dictionary of American English published by Noah Webster.


Age of Jackson

Andrew Jackson wins next election (1828). First president elected from the west. Represents the “rise of the common man” in U.S. government.


Jackson is president during “nullification” crisis. Some states threaten to nullify the “Tariff of Abominations.” Jackson promises military action against states (South Carolina) wishing to ignore Federal laws.


Trail of Tears: Because of Indian Removal Act, several tribes are forced off their land. Cherokee forces to march hundreds of miles over, what becomes known as, theTrail of Tears.


New presidential elections:

1836: William Henry Harrison vs. Martin van Buren

1840: William Henry Harrison vs. Martin van Buren


Van Buren wins in 1836. Financial crisis dooms his administration

Harrison wins in 1840 and dies just 30 days after becoming president. First president to die in office. Vice President John Tyler becomes president when Harrison dies.


Manifest Destiny: America’s belief that it had a God given right to spread from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Basically justifies the many land grabs it undertakes.


Texas becomes part of U.S. after nine years as an independent republic. After a slaughter of all the defenders at the fortress Alamo in San Antonio, Texas rebels win huge victory (and independence) at the Battle of San Jacinto by defeating Mexican forces led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa AnnaSam Houston is new president of the republic.


Oregon Trail: Thousands go west looking for more land. Mormons go west looking for a new place to settle, led by Brigham Young to the valley of the Great Salt Lake. Oregon and California are the two main destinations. Tragedy strikes Donner Party. Notable people in the wagon train. James Reed. Jacob Donner. Louis Keyesberg. Their biggest mistake was taking a short cut promoted by Lansford Hastings.


War with Mexico: War was fought over a boundary dispute. President James K. Polk wanted the war as a means of taking California from the Mexicans. Victory in 1848 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes huge amount of land to the U.S.


Gold discovered in California. January 1848, on John Sutter’s land. By the next year thousands flood into California hoping to strike it rich. San Francisco grows tremendously. 49ers come from all parts of the world and from all walks of life.


Market Revolution marked by economic growth and new inventions.


Cotton gin:                              Eli Whitney

Interchangeable parts:             Eli Whitney

Steel plow:                              John Deere

Mechanical reaper:                  Cyrus McCormick

Telegraph:                               Samuel Morse

Sewing machine:                      Elias Howe

Revolving pistol:                     Samuel Colt


These inventions help the economy of the U.S. grow.


Reformers of the reform movement:

Abolition movement: Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, William Lloyd Garrison

Women’s Rights: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott

Asylum movement: Dorthea Dix

Education movement: Horace Mann

Temperance movement: Neal Dow